22
Sep

I Like Reading News About President Trump

I was raised in a conservative household. When I went off to college, I hung out with a liberal crowd. I realized after graduating that I didn’t really fit in with either group. I am definitely a moderate because I can see some good from both sides, and I see a lot of the not so good from both sides too. I was not disappointed when Trump was elected to be the leader of our country, because I followed all of the Trump news when he was running his campaign, and I actually liked what he said for the most part.

He has a moderate to conservative outlook on quite a few things, which is how he won the election in my opinion. I am 100 percent behind him, and I keep up on the news about him on a regular basis. Continue reading

5
Aug

Good Carbs vs. Bad Carbs

Good Carbs vs. Bad Carbs

Dr. Group

by Dr. Edward Group DC, NP, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM
Published on , Last Updated on

Good carbs vs bad carbs. Image with a bowl of nuts.

Following a healthy diet is one of the most effective measures you can take to support your health and well-being, and the carbohydrates you eat can make or break you. The right ones will provide slow, steady-release energy along with important nutrients; the wrong carbs, such as high fructose corn syrup, refined sugar, and bleached flour, can set you back and actively work against your pursuit of health. Here, we’ll cover what you need to know to choose the best sources.

What Are Carbohydrates?

Along with fat and protein, carbohydrates are one of the three main macronutrients. Their primary function in the human body is to provide energy. Carbs, which are categorized as simple or complex, encompass a broad range of sugars, starches, and fiber.

Sugar, Starch, and Fiber

In nature, sugar is found in animal milk and fruit.[1] Sugar is categorized as either monosaccharides or disaccharides. Monosaccharides, which are the simplest of sugars, are individual sugar molecules. The human diet contains three monosaccharides—glucose, fructose, and galactose. Individual monosaccharides combine to form disaccharides: maltose (glucose + glucose = malt sugar), sucrose (glucose + fructose = table sugar), and lactose (glucose + galactose = milk sugar).

Starches, also called polysaccharides or complex carbohydrates, are longer chains of individual sugar molecules.

Fiber, which is undigestible, non-starch polysaccharides, encourages bowel regularity and significantly reduces the risk of many lifestyle-related conditions.[4] Dietary fiber also feeds the health-promoting microbes in the gut to boost immune function, encourage healthy weight and metabolism, and even influence mental well-being.[5, 6, 7]

What Are Complex Carbohydrates?

Simply put, complex carbs are the good carbs you should base your diet on. Complex carbs are sugar molecules that are strung together in long, complex chains. Because of that structure, the body digests them slowly and they generally don’t produce a spike in blood sugar. Oatmeal, brown rice, beans, green vegetables, and alternative grains are all good sources of complex carbs. As you might guess from those examples, one of the benefits of complex carbohydrates is that they’re typically a good source of vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients.

What Are Simple Carbohydrates?

Simple carbohydrates, also called simple sugars, are just that—simple. They’re comprised of one or two sugar molecules and the body is able to digest them quickly, which makes them a fast-acting source of energy. If, for example, you’re an athlete in the middle of a competition and need energy to burn, that can be a good thing. But, if you’re sedentary, simple carbs are more likely to spike your blood sugar and make you gain weight.

Not all simple carbohydrates are bad. Fresh fruit provides simple carbs, but it also provides fiber. Simple carbs with fiber are more like complex carbs, and the body digests and absorbs them more slowly.

Refined Carbohydrates: Too Simple

Conversely, removing fiber from complex carbohydrates will cause your body to react like it would to simple carbohydrates. These carbs, often referred to as refined carbohydrates, come from whole, natural foods, but they’ve been processed to the point that they no longer resemble their original form. High fructose corn syrup and bleached white flour are common examples. High fructose corn syrup is better described as a chemical sweetener than a natural corn product. Pasta, white bread, and even fruit juice are examples of refined carbs.

The questionable value of fruit juice is a surprise to many people. It’s easy to think a large quantity of fresh fruit juice is nothing but good, but keep in mind that the fiber has been removed and the simple sugars remain, sometimes a remarkably high amount of sugar. It’s best to limit your intake of simple carbohydrates, especially if they’re refined. If you need to clean up your diet, eliminating simple sugars is the best place to start.

Choosing the Right Carbohydrates

Selecting the right carbs is easy when you keep a few fundamental guidelines in mind.

Eat Your Vegetables

First, build your diet around whole, organic vegetables and fruit. Plant-based nutrients encourage graceful aging, promote healthy cell division, and reduce your risk of lifestyle-related health conditions. Lean toward produce that has bright, vibrant colors as it provides a wide spectrum of phytonutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Unfortunately, less than 3% of adults get enough fiber every day.[2] That’s no surprise, considering 76% of Americans don’t eat enough fruit and 87% don’t eat enough vegetables.[3] As a rule of thumb, I try to consume twice as many vegetables as fruit.

Beans, Seeds, Nuts, and Alternative Grains

Legumes like lentils, beans, and peas are nutrient dense and versatile. Seeds and nuts, especially almonds, walnuts, macadamias, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds are good sources of carbs. When selecting starchy foods, such as rice, bread, or any other product made from flour, it’s best to opt for whole grain versions. Whole grain foods affect blood glucose levels more slowly than other carbs.

Many people depend on the glycemic index to determine if their food is a good source of carbs. The glycemic index rates carbs according to how quickly they raise blood sugar. Although the glycemic index can provide food for thought, it’s best to treat the index as more of a guideline than a hard and fast rule. Some research suggests the accuracy of the glycemic index may vary.

Good Sources of Carbohydrates

There are a number of good sources of carbohydrates that provide energy and important nutrients without artificial ingredients or additives.

  • Organic steel cut or rolled oats
  • Organic nuts and seeds
  • Organic whole, unprocessed grains: quinoa, spelt, buckwheat, millet, and wheat berries
  • Organic legumes: black beans, kidney beans, chickpeas, and mung beans
  • Organic fruit: berries, tomatoes, and citrus fruits
  • Organic vegetables: beets, carrots, purple potatoes, sweet potatoes, and winter squash

Bad Sources of Carbohydrates

Even more than simply being devoid of nutritional value and fiber, bad carbohydrates like high fructose corn syrup, white flour, and refined sugar are actively detrimental to your health and well-being. Minimize (or, preferably, eliminate) refined and processed carbohydrates from your diet. Soda, white flour, refined sugar, and the like don’t provide any real nutritional value and often times are the very food that clutters up an otherwise healthy diet.

  • Baked goods: bread, muffins, bagels, and cornbread
  • Sweetened beverages: soda, energy drinks, fruit juice cocktails, alcoholic mixers, sweet tea, sweetened smoothies, sugary coffee-based drinks, and milk shakes
  • Packaged snacks: cereal, gummy snacks, pretzels, and cereal bars
  • Overly processed foods: french fries, chips, most frozen meals, toaster pastries, pizza dough, and cereal
  • Confections and candy: ice cream, cake, brownies, and cookies
  • White pasta, vermicelli, fideo, and couscous

A Balanced Diet Is Key

A balanced diet is key to experiencing good health and wellness. To thrive, consider what’s best for you, not just what’s good enough. If eating clean isn’t helping you meet your health goals, consider fasting. I designed a Vegan Ketogenic Fast to help the body release stored toxins and reset.

What’s your take on carbs? Leave a comment below and share your thoughts with us.

References (7)
  1. “Carbohydrates.” Medline Plus. 5 Jan. 2017. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
  2. “Fiber intake of the U.S. population What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010.” United States Department of Agriculture. 2014. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
  3. CDC. “Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations — United States, 2013.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC, 10 July 2015. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
  4. Reicks, Marla, et al. “Total Dietary Fiber Intakes in the US Population Are Related to Whole Grain Consumption: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.” (2014): n.pag. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
  5. Cani, P.D., et al. “Selective Increases of Bifidobacteria in Gut Microflora Improve High-Fat-Diet-Induced Diabetes in Mice Through a Mechanism Associated with Endotoxaemia.” Diabetologia 50.11 (2007): 2374–83. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
  6. Christian, L.M., et al. “Gut Microbiome Composition Is Associated with Temperament During Early Childhood.” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 45. (2014): 118–27. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
  7. Mayer, Emeran A., et al. “Gut Microbes and the Brain: Paradigm Shift in Neuroscience.” Journal of Neuroscience 34.46 (2014): n.pag. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.

†Results may vary. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor. Global Healing Center does not dispense medical advice, prescribe, or diagnose illness. The views and nutritional advice expressed by Global Healing Center are not intended to be a substitute for conventional medical service. If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, see your physician.

5
Aug

The Fasting Diet: Tips for a Successful Fast

The Fasting Diet: Tips for a Successful Fast

Dr. Group

by Dr. Edward Group DC, NP, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM
Published on , Last Updated on

Drink plenty of water during a fasting diet.

A fasting diet is a nutritional therapy involving either full or partial caloric restriction. It can be a challenge if you embark on one unprepared and unaware. There are many ways you can prepare yourself for a fast. In this article, I’ll give you the tips and tricks that’ll help you successfully reach your fasting goals such as healthy habits, nutrition, and hunger management.

Make things easy on yourself from the very beginning. First, make sure you do your research into fasting, especially if you’re aiming for a specific health benefit. Not all fasts have the same results, so choose your fast carefully to achieve your goals. Before embarking on your fast, speak with your trusted health care provider about your plans. They’ll be able to advise you if any medications or supplements you take will need to be adjusted for the fast.

Tips on How To Get Through a Fast

  • Get a head start on any new projects before starting your fast.
  • Complete any chores to make mornings easier.
  • Don’t over-commit to social engagements for the duration of the fast.
  • Prepare yourself emotionally for hunger and irritability.
  • Begin fasting on Friday afternoon.
  • Take a nap during lunch breaks.
  • Go easy on your workouts.
  • Go to bed earlier.
  • Drink plenty of water or tea.
  • Trying indulging in a hobby you don’t normally have time for to keep busy.
  • Set clear boundaries before beginning.

Establish Clear, Measurable Goals

With any new routine or healthy habit, it’s important to set measurable goals, instead of vague, undefined objectives. Assign a number to the goal. Pick a percentage, duration length, or reading on a ketone strip. You’ll get a big boost in your sense of accomplishment once you make it. If not, you’ll be able to evaluate how close you got to it, giving a new milestone for next time. When fasting, your goal might be to go a set amount of time without breaking the fast, liver detoxification, losing body fat, cleansing your diet of particular foods, or experiencing the clear thinking associated with fasting.

Know Yourself

Despite the many benefits, fasting is still challenging. If you’re irritable when you’re hungry, expect to be the same on your fast—only slightly worse. For the first 2-3 days, you’ll likely experience some negative sensations, and your mood may suffer as a result. During the first day or two, intense hunger is normal, but this feeling quickly fades. You may find the mild physical discomfort of hunger pales in comparison to the effect on your mood. Some people report feeling shaky, weak, dizzy, or just generally out of sorts while their body adjusts. Prepare yourself mentally for these sensations.

These feelings can affect how you respond to adverse situations and interact with other people. Check in with yourself and your feelings. Are you impatient for a reason or are you just feeling a little irritable? Are you dealing with your challenges healthily, or are you letting them get the best of you? Be cognizant of your mental state and emotional disposition through your fast and do what’s necessary to steer yourself toward a more positive experience for yourself and those around you. When you speak with others, try to acknowledge that any crankiness is due to low blood sugar rather than the person or project you’re currently working on. Take a moment to compose yourself by breathing deeply or try meditating to reflect on your emotional state.

Get a Jump on Work

The first few days will be the toughest, so prepare yourself at home and work so that your days run as smoothly as possible. To compensate, try to get ahead on any projects that require intense mental effort in the days leading up to your fast. The best practice is preparing as though you’ll be slightly dazed for the first 2-3 days. Stress and fasting are not a good pair, so try to make up for any heavy mental lifting early by getting ahead. That way you can relax, and you’ll be able to dial it back a little and take the pressure off for the first few days.

Detox Your Diet

Two weeks before your fast, eliminate the food you crave the most. If you have a particular weakness for soda or fries, try eliminating these items from your diet before you begin fasting. Cravings for specific foods are normal, but while you’re fasting, you won’t be able to satisfy them. To dispel their power over you, try cutting these kinds of foods from your diet a week or two before fasting.

Tidy Up at Home

Losing your shoes, misplacing your keys, or not having something to wear are some of those daily frustrations that you can easily avoid with some timely preparation. When you’re fasting, these kinds of frustrations can feel a lot more frustrating, so plan for them to make mornings easier.

Before your fast, complete your chores. Pick up the dry cleaning, pay any bills due soon, wash and fold your laundry, make sure all the walkways in your home are clear of tripping hazards. As you fast, you might begin to feel floaty and euphoric, so try to be diligent about putting your belongings where they need to go.

Overcoming Obstacles While Fasting

Now that you know what to expect, here’s a little primer on overcoming the obstacles that arise while you’re fasting.

Drink Water to Manage Hunger

Cravings are one of the most significant obstacles when you’re just starting your fast and it may begin to feel like an uphill battle with little incentive to keep going. You may notice that your sense of smell is heightened when you’re fasting. Fortunately, you’ll only feel cravings for the first 72 hours.

Hunger and thirst are often confused, and while this might not be the case on day two of your fast, filling up on water can help alleviate some feelings of hunger. You could also try an appetite suppressant like Slimirex® to quell your cravings. Warm, fragrant herbal teas are another excellent option to quiet a grumbling stomach. If you’re not on a strict water fast, you can also have some clear broth or thinned juice to keep your energy up.

Keep Your Fast to Yourself

Of the many potential challenges that stand in your way is the people around you. Scientific research on fasting is not well-known among the general populace, so you’ll likely meet with vehement resistance if you tell anyone that you’re fasting for health purposes.

Your friends and family might not approve, especially if they’re unfamiliar with fasting. Most people equate fasting with starving and immediately dismiss the merits of the practice. Of course, you could show your naysayers studies and articles on the benefits of fasting, but chances are you won’t be able to change their mind. Your best bet is only telling the people who need to know. This list includes your partner, your health care provider, and maybe your immediate supervisor.

Start Your Fast Before a Weekend

Since the first 2-3 days are the toughest, try timing your fast to begin on a Friday after lunch. This way the most difficult days will be on your own time when you don’t have to deal with getting ready for work, traffic, or the scent of donuts wafting from the break room.

Get Plenty of Rest

Expect to feel tired, initially. Your body is adjusting, and you’ll likely feel drained both emotionally and in terms of energy. Treat yourself to a good night’s rest.

Go Easy at the Gym

Take it easy on your workouts. Fat metabolizes much more slowly than carbohydrates and protein, so your best bet to spare muscle while fasting is an easy walk or a restorative yoga class.[1, 2]

Coping With Boredom

Without all the meal prep, cleaning, and meal times, you might find you have some extra time on your hands. To avoid giving into that initial gnawing hunger, try picking up a new hobby you don’t normally have time to do. Something that keeps your hands busy is a better option than idly sitting and watching tv. Knitting, sewing, reading, woodworking, journaling, video games, or another hobby are effective ways to keep your idle hands from reaching into the pantry. Find something you look forward to doing to keep your mind off eating.

Take a Nap

Meal times might be difficult, so don’t hesitate to skip out and take a power nap. If you’re at work, try taking a short siesta in your car or a quiet room. You’ll wake up feeling refreshed and ready instead of stuffed.

Remind Yourself of Your Goals

If you find yourself trying to rationalize breaking your fast earlier than you planned, reflecting on why you wanted to fast to begin with will help you overcome this desire. That said, make sure to listen to your body. If you begin to feel ill or very weak, don’t put off breaking your fast out of stubbornness or competition. Don’t try to do more than your body can handle. Don’t worry, you can always try again.

Keep Your Energy Levels Up

Fasting can leave you feeling depleted in more ways than one. In addition to staying hydrated, you might also consider supplementing with B vitamins to recoup some of your energy. VeganSafe™ B-12 is formulated with methylcobalamin, the form of B-12 your body needs to keep you energized.

Breaking Your Fast

Breaking your fast properly is critical. The first foods you feed your body after fasting determine how successful you are at maintaining the progress you’ve made. Don’t undermine all the progress by breaking your fast with unhealthy starchy, greasy, or fried foods.

When you’re coming out of your fast, try to stay away from sugary foods. The ideal first meal would be something like watermelon or a small healthy mixed green salad with some healthy fats like walnuts and a drizzle of full-fat salad dressing. You can also try raw veggies with a little tahini or some olive oil with herbs. Avoid bottled dressings that are loaded with sugar, salt, and vinegar that may be a bit too sharp for your palate. This will help you refamiliarize your body with solid foods without overwhelming it.

Ideally, the foods you eat in the transition period between fasting and eating normally should be the kinds of things you would eat on a cleanse. This is going to be things like raw, fibrous vegetables, watery soups that don’t contain too much starch, nuts, seeds, and ancient grains mixed with raw or steamed vegetables. Start incorporating fruit back into your diet 1-2 days after breaking the fast. Fruits contain a lot of sugar, so try sticking with low-glycemic fruits like cherries, coconut meat, watermelon, avocados, and blueberries.[3, 4, 5, 6]

Lasting Changes After Fasting

Think of breaking your fast as the chance to upgrade your lifestyle. Fasting is not only one of the best ways to activate your body’s self-healing process, but it also re-sensitizes your palate to subtle flavors. You’ll find that foods that were once bland or uninteresting are now bursting with flavor.

This is your opportunity to structure your diet around micronutrient-dense foods bursting with vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients that are essential to your health. Eat the kinds of meals built around foods you usually aspire to eat—celeriac, kale juice, and smoothie bowls—all of those beautiful, healthy things you would eat if you only had the time and inclination.

If you want to learn more, read our guide to the different types of fasting to figure out which fast is right for you.

Do you have any fasting tips to contribute? Tell us about them in the comments below!

References (6)
  1. Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer, L. “Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. Section 30.4, Fuel Choice During Exercise Is Determined by Intensity and Duration of Activity.” Web.
  2. “Muscle Physiology – Metabolism Of Fatty Acids.” Muscle.ucsd.edu. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.
  3. “Cherries, Sweet, Raw Nutrition Facts & Calories.” Nutritiondata.self.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.
  4. “Nuts, Coconut Meat, Raw Nutrition Facts & Calories.” Nutritiondata.self.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.
  5. “Watermelon, Raw Nutrition Facts & Calories.” Nutritiondata.self.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.
  6. “Blueberries, Raw Nutrition Facts & Calories.” Nutritiondata.self.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 May 2017.

†Results may vary. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor. Global Healing Center does not dispense medical advice, prescribe, or diagnose illness. The views and nutritional advice expressed by Global Healing Center are not intended to be a substitute for conventional medical service. If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, see your physician.

5
Aug

What Is Alternate Day Fasting?

What Is Alternate Day Fasting?

Dr. Group

by Dr. Edward Group DC, NP, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM
Published on

Alternate day fasting is a great way to lose weight and encourage longevity.

Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a type of intermittent fasting in which you alternate between “fast days,” when you consume very few or zero calories, and “feed days” when you eat as much as you like. When done correctly, ADF is a powerful tool for weight loss and longevity.

How an Alternate Day Fast Is Done

The basics of alternate day fasting are relatively straightforward. You just eat every other day. On fast days, you water fast or consume other zero-calorie liquids like tea and detox water. On feed days, you can eat whatever you want (within reason).

If zero calories seems like an impossible goal, many experts recommend a modified approach. In the modified form, instead of consuming zero calories on fast days, you consume about 25% of your normal energy requirements. Exact calorie requirements differ from person to person, but if we assume a 2000 calorie diet, that means you consume 500 calories on fast days. These calories should be consumed in a single meal between noon and 2 p.m.[1]

Researchers theorized that people who ate only 25% of their calorie requirements on fast days would compensate by binge-eating 175% of their needs on feed days. Surprisingly, that doesn’t seem to be the case. Participants in the study only ate slightly more than normal on feed days.[2] What that means is that their bodies absorbed fewer calories over the two-day period. This type of energy restriction means that you can lose weight while still eating what you want half the time.

Alternate Day Fasting vs Conventional Dieting

The standard type of weight loss plan is caloric restriction (CR). CR is simply reducing the number of calories you consume every day. You usually have to restrict your calories by 25-40% to achieve noticeable results. As a weight loss tool, caloric restriction seems to make sense. Take in fewer calories than you consume every day, and you have to lose weight. It’s basic math, right?

A concern with traditional caloric restriction is adherence. People just don’t stick to it for very long. Generally, dieters are very good about rigorously following their meal plan for a couple of weeks. However, there’s a dramatic drop-off after the two month mark. Eight weeks seems to be about the limit that most people can endure daily calorie restriction. What’s more, your metabolism doesn’t keep chugging along despite running a deficit. It starts to conserve energy where it can, meaning that your metabolism slows dramatically, and weight loss slows to a halt.

For many, alternate day fasting is a more manageable option than conventional CR. With feed days never more than a day away, the fast days don’t seem quite so bad. On a traditional restrictive diet, you must exercise extreme self-control and deny yourself any treats, and that can leave you feeling defeated, depleted, and frustrated. With ADF, you know that you can eat what you want tomorrow.

With this comforting knowledge, many people find alternate day fasting easier to stick to than conventional calorie restriction. In fact, studies have found that ADF has an adherence rate of about 87%.[3] The first couple days are the hardest. Most people feel hungry during the first few days of the fast, but, eventually, their leptin and ghrelin levels stabilize and their metabolism adapts to the new schedule.

The Health Benefits of Alternate Day Fasting

Humans have known about the benefits of fasting for thousands of years, but conventional medicine has often ignored this knowledge. Fortunately, recent research now confirms much of what our ancestors already knew—fasting, when done correctly, can have a tremendously positive effect on the body.

Promotes Weight Loss

Multiple studies, both animal and human, have reported significant weight loss for ADF participants. The results? An average loss of about 8% of total body weight over an eight week period and a measurable reduction in belly fat.[4]

What’s more, ADF preserves muscle mass more effectively than conventional dieting. After a successful conventional diet, about 75% of weight loss comes from body fat; the remaining 25% is lost from lean muscle. With ADF, studies show that approximately 99% of lost weight is in the form of fat. This makes for a much healthier body composition after the fast is complete.[5]

Improves Insulin and Blood-Glucose Levels

ADF may have beneficial effects for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Studies have found that ADF reduces blood glucose levels in animals and improves insulin sensitivity in humans.[6]

Supports Heart Health

In animal testing, ADF was found to reduce heart rate, decrease blood pressure, and improve cholesterol levels. Further testing is necessary to determine if these results are replicable in humans.[6]

Reduces Inflammation

Both human and animal studies have found that ADF reduces occasional inflammation. The fast even selectively protects certain organs like the liver and endocrine tissues.[7, 8]

Encourages Longevity

Cells become stronger if you put them under mild stress and allow them the time to recover from it. That’s essentially why exercise works. Exercise stresses muscle tissue, which then grows back stronger after recovery. “There is considerable similarity between how cells respond to the stress of exercise and how cells respond to intermittent fasting,” says Mark Mattson, senior investigator for the National Institute on Aging. Intermittent fasting has been confirmed to extend lifespan in animal studies, but more research is necessary to see if this benefit carries over to humans.[9]

Making the Most of Your Fast

Alternate day fasting has many benefits, but it needs to be done the right way. You must still make healthy decisions. All forms of dieting work best when paired with exercise. ADF is no excuse to skip hitting the gym, so find an exercise regimen that works for you. Likewise, if you spend feed days eating toxic, processed food, your health will suffer. Make an effort to eat a healthy diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables and a reasonable amount of healthy fats.

Alternate Day Fasting Alternatives

While many people find the alternate day fast easier to follow than other dieting options, some may find it more difficult. In particular, frequent snackers and people who get irritable when they don’t eat regularly every few hours typically find the ADF difficult to adhere to. That’s perfectly fine. We are all unique individuals with different dietary needs, metabolisms, activity levels, and preferences. ADF is far from the only type of fasting regimen. If you are interested in different types of fasts, ADF can also be an excellent introduction to fasting in general.

Which specific nutritional plan you follow is less important than the fact that you have a plan. There are many other types of diets and fasts (like the ketogenic fast), each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Find a nutrition plan that suits your body and make it part of your healthy lifestyle.

Have you tried alternate day fasting? Any other kind of fast? What was your experience? Let us know in the comments below.

References (9)
  1. Wisby, Gary. “Krista Varady Weighs in on How to Drop Pounds.” UIC News Center. University of Illinois, 5 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 June 2017.
  2. Klempel, Monica C., et al. “Dietary and Physical Activity Adaptations to Alternate Day Modified Fasting: Implications for Optimal Weight Loss.” Nutrition Journal 9 (2010): 35. Web. 12 June 2017.
  3. Varady, K. A., et al. “Short-term Modified Alternate-day Fasting: A Novel Dietary Strategy for Weight Loss and Cardioprotection in Obese Adults.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90.5 (2009): 1138-143. Web. 12 June 2017.
  4. Patterson, Ruth E., et al. “INTERMITTENT FASTING AND HUMAN METABOLIC HEALTH.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115.8 (2015): 1203–1212. Web. 12 June 2017.
  5. Bhutani, S., et al. “Improvements in Coronary Heart Disease Risk Indicators by Alternate‐Day Fasting Involve Adipose Tissue Modulations.” Obesity. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 06 Sept. 2012. Web. 12 June 2017.
  6. Varady, K., and M. Hellerstein. “Alternate-day Fasting and Chronic Disease Prevention: A Review of Human and Animal Trials.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86.1 (2007): 7-13. Web. 12 June 2017.
  7. Traba, Javier, et al. “Fasting and Refeeding Differentially Regulate NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Subjects.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 125.12 (2015): 4592–4600. Web. 12 June 2017.
  8. Yang, W., et al. “Alternate-day Fasting Protects the Livers of Mice against High-fat Diet–induced Inflammation Associated with the Suppression of Toll-like Receptor 4/nuclear Factor κB Signaling.” Nutrition Research 36.6 (2016): 586-93. Web. 12 June 2017.
  9. Collier, Roger. “Intermittent Fasting: The Science of Going without.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal 185.9 (2013): E363–E364. Web. 12 June 2017.

†Results may vary. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor. Global Healing Center does not dispense medical advice, prescribe, or diagnose illness. The views and nutritional advice expressed by Global Healing Center are not intended to be a substitute for conventional medical service. If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, see your physician.

5
Aug

Ode to the Buttered Roll, That New York Lifeline

Ode to the Buttered Roll, That New York Lifeline

Photo

The buttered roll is a distinctly local phenomenon in the New York metropolitan area. Credit Liz Barclay for The New York Times

It can be hard to explain the appeal of a buttered roll.

Unlike the breakfast sandwich or the cruller, the humble buttered roll makes no claims to lusciousness. It’s not really greater than the sum of its parts: a round roll, sliced and slathered with butter. There is no alchemy involved.

And yet, like many New Yorkers, I’ve breakfasted all my life on buttered rolls, wrapped in plastic, foil or wax paper and sold for about a dollar at any corner deli, bodega or coffee cart.

Do I love them? No. That is not really the point. I love that they exist, an unsung, charmingly ordinary hero of the city’s mornings.

Though of course bread and butter are eaten all over, the buttered roll (or roll with butter, as it is known in parts of New Jersey) is a distinctly local phenomenon. Mention its name outside the New York metropolitan area and you would very likely be met with blank incomprehension.

“Never heard of it growing up in Chicago,” said Michael Stern, a chronicler of regional fare and an author of the “Roadfood” book series, “and really not much beyond Fairfield County in Connecticut.” (Indeed, one can roughly trace the expansion of the buttered roll to the migration of New Yorkers to surrounding commuter suburbs.)

Photo

Credit Liz Barclay for The New York Times

In New York City itself, buttered rolls are a perennial: Like a working character actor, they are everywhere you look without realizing it. No one has tried to reinvent the buttered roll, or jazz it up or export it — the idea just wouldn’t occur. Still, it unobtrusively endures.

“It’s one of the most popular things I sell, absolutely,” said Peter Cherevas, who has had a coffee cart stationed at 86th Street and Broadway for the past 27 years. Sales, he said, are “very, very consistent — more than bagels.”

“Bagels have slacked off; buttered rolls have not,” he continued. “Small coffee, milk one sugar, you’re good.”

Mr. Cherevas typically sells four dozen buttered rolls a day, to a diverse group of customers: young and old, suits and hard hats. “Everyone!” he said. “They’re all New Yorkers, though, not tourists.”

Part of the appeal is that they’re hard to screw up. Even if the roll is less than fresh, or prepared with margarine, or the filling is bizarrely distributed, the final product is somehow, magically, edible.

“You can’t go just anywhere in New York and get a decent breakfast sandwich,” the chef Wylie Dufresne said. “You certainly can’t guarantee a good bagel. But you can go into any bodega, get a buttered roll.”

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Peter Cherevas at his coffee cart at 86th and Broadway. Credit Liz Barclay for The New York Times

It’s not that straightforward, though. If you ask New Yorkers about it, as I did, the effect can be practically Proustian. “Hang on, let me write a novel about this,” responded one friend, who (apparently overcome with emotion) then failed to do so. Another friend’s father recalled a song at a 1968 Hunter high school sing-in featuring the lyrics “Gristedes takes a cut a every roll and buttah.” (Unconfirmed.) My husband, as a young editor at the book publisher Farrar, Straus and Giroux, often saw Roger Straus Jr., one of the company’s founders, buy a buttered roll and coffee regular from the coffee cart in front of the building, part of his morning routine.

“I loved and relied on them when I was very broke and young and coffee still only came from a cart or a deli,” the chef Gabrielle Hamilton said. “I was always annoyed that they didn’t spread the butter evenly, so you had to eat a dry outer ring until you got to the center, where you got a gross mouthful of too much butter — if it even was butter. Still, it was a lifeline.”

Peter Elliot, an editor at Bloomberg, recalled that for his class-conscious father, buttered rolls were too unsophisticated, and banned in their East Side home.

The origins of the buttered roll are cloaked in mystery, or perhaps mere lack of curiosity. I approached five historians of New York food, all of whom admitted they had never considered the roll’s place in the city’s foodscape. It belongs instead to a certain kind of anecdotal lore. That said, there are certain facts. The first such rolls would have arrived in New York in the 1870s, along with Louis Fleischmann’s Vienna Model Bakery, which brought commercial yeasted bread to the city. The buttered roll apparently became popular with German Jews (and later, Eastern European Jews) as a filling, inexpensive dairy meal, in accordance with kosher law.

When the 20th century brought us the commuter breakfast, the buttered roll was ready to take its place on office coffee carts and at takeout windows.

Order a buttered roll and you’ll invariably be handed a kaiser. But ask old-time New Yorkers, and they will swear up and down that today’s model is a pale version of the remembered “Vienna” or “hard rolls,” a smaller, cornmeal-bottomed pastry with an open crumb and a shatteringly crisp crust.

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Credit Liz Barclay for The New York Times

“The whole charm of these is that they were basically hollow,” said the food writer Arthur Schwartz, a Brooklyn native. “The rolls really were crunchy, and very light. It’s not so delicious anymore: The butter’s not butter, and the roll’s not crisp.”

Today’s roll, true, is rarely fresh-baked. Often the crust is slackened by its plastic wrapping, which some feel imparts a chemical flavor. (Paper was de rigueur, once upon a time.) Most rolls sold at delis and coffee carts come from a few large distributors; New Yorker, a distributor based in Astoria, Queens, provides about half of the rolls sold by vendors. A manager there estimated the output at about 700 dozen rolls a day, five days a week.

And then there is the butter. It’s still possible to find a roll spread with the genuine article (Eisenberg’s Sandwich Shop in the Flatiron district sells an admirable specimen), but many carts and bodegas stock a less expensive butter-flavored spread. Although plenty of vendors spread their rolls in advance for easy morning turnover, others prepare each roll to order from a large tub of spread, heavily daubing the roll’s lower half with an expert flick of the knife.

To some purists, a buttered roll made with “spread” is not worth eating. “The entire point is a roll spread with real, sweet butter,” said Christina Harcar, a fifth-generation New Jerseyan. “The day they switched to margarine, in the ’70s, is the day my grandmother ate her last buttered roll.”

Still, it’s not a hard taste to acquire. A vendor who has run a coffee cart in Midtown East since 2009 said he had never had a buttered roll before moving to New York from Karachi, Pakistan. Now, though?

“I eat one every day,” he said. “Small coffee and one buttered roll. It’s easy.”

5
Aug

Remembering Judith Jones and Her Recipe for Food Writing

Remembering Judith Jones and Her Recipe for Food Writing

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Judith Jones preparing lunch in her Manhattan apartment. Credit Chester Higgins Jr./The New York Times

Judith Jones, who died Wednesday at her house in rural Vermont, wielded her green editing pencil like a knife.

With it, she molded the manuscripts of a generation of cookbook authors and gave the food world a literary spine, insisting on airtight recipes and visceral prose.

In 1961, when she published Julia Child’s much-rejected manuscript for “Mastering the Art of French Cooking,” Ms. Jones could see what others could not: that cooking would soon become a cultural touchstone in America.

Ms. Jones, who took a deeply personal interest in her authors in a way that is nearly extinct in today’s publishing world, was fiercely competitive. Any food trend that smelled like a fad was dismissed out of hand. Stern, serious and often unmovable, Ms. Jones approached cookbooks like works of literature that happened to contain recipes. Still, the books had to be practical.

“She did not have that sort of abstract, fake literary-tone-poems-about-food thing. She was interested in a real sense of a real cook in the kitchen,” said Rux Martin, the cookbook editor who once edited the master when they reworked the children’s baking book “Knead It, Punch It, Bake It!,” which Ms. Jones wrote with her husband, Evan.

In addition to the famous cookbooks listed, Ms. Jones was the editor of Irene Kuo’s “The Key To Chinese Cooking”, perhaps the best cookbook…

“I was terrified,” Ms. Martin said. “Wouldn’t you be?”

It was a sentiment shared by many in her stable at Alfred A. Knopf, where she worked from 1957 until she retired in 2013.

“I think all of us were terrified to hand in our manuscripts,” said Joan Nathan, who wrote four books on Jewish cooking with Ms. Jones. “If she put a green ‘nice’ on anything you’d written, you would fly through the sky.”

Over the years, her roster included fiction writers like John Updike and Anne Tyler, as well as the chef Jacques Pépin and Edna Lewis, a Southern cook whose book “The Taste of Country Cooking” Ms. Jones pulled out of her one handwritten yellow legal-pad page at a time.

“You did not want to raise her ire,” said Scott Peacock, the chef who would go on to write “The Gift of Southern Cooking” with Ms. Lewis under the firm hand of Ms. Jones.

On Wednesday, he recalled a story that Marion Cunningham, another of Ms. Jones’s authors, liked to tell about the time she went to Ms. Jones’s Episcopal Church. Ms. Cunningham was a lapsed Roman Catholic, but still mindful that Catholics should take communion only from a Catholic priest.

“Once communion commenced, Judith turned to Marion and said, ‘Now you know, Marion, you can go up with me and take communion,” Mr. Peacock wrote in an email. “In that moment, Marion said she had to decide who she was more afraid of, God or Judith Jones? Needless to say, she took communion.”

Though Ms. Jones was an agile fiction editor whose break came when she flagged “The Diary of Anne Frank” as a book that should be published in English, she built her reputation on finding well-educated, underappreciated cooks like Ms. Cunningham, Marcella Hazan and Madhur Jaffrey, turning them into stars at a time when home cooking and those who practiced it were looked down upon in a male-dominated publishing world, and celebrity chefs had yet to grip the nation’s imagination.

Ms. Jones discovered Ms. Cunningham when she was seeking someone to rework nearly 2,000 recipes from Fannie Merritt Farmer’s 1890 cookbook, and turned to James Beard for advice. He sent Ms. Jones a stack of letters about food from Ms. Cunningham, a California homemaker who was working as his assistant. It started her career.

“What she did for Marion and for many of the other women she edited was such an act of kindness,” said Ruth Reichl, the author and former editor of Gourmet magazine. Ms. Jones, she said, was even kind when she rejected her first memoir, “Tender at the Bone.”

Ms. Jones sent Ms. Reichl a note saying that she loved the book because she saw it as a bookend to the works of M.F.K. Fisher. But, she said, she would not buy it because her bosses at Knopf didn’t have an appetite for food memoirs at the time.

“I don’t think it would be good for you or the book,” Ms. Jones said. Ms. Reichl took her advice and went to another publisher. The book became a best-seller and ushered in the era of the modern food memoir.

“It was just incredibly kind, because she knew what would be best for the book and she was realistic about it,” said Ms. Reichl, who called Ms. Jones “wonderfully indignant” on matters of food.

“Food started getting serious respect largely because of her,” Ms. Reichl said. “When you talk about the cookbook revolution, she was the revolution.”

5
Aug

A Cool Solution for Hot Summer Nights

A Cool Solution for Hot Summer Nights

CreditKarsten Moran for The New York Times

For some, a cold supper’s main virtue is expedience — a less-than-exciting but convenient way to get food on the table with no cooking required.

My friend from upstate New York, however, has fond memories of summer evenings and cold suppers eaten on the screened-in porch. His family’s small farm supplied everything but the cold cuts, which were picked up in town. Potato salad, macaroni salad and deviled eggs were always served, along with sliced tomatoes from the garden, a green salad and homemade pickles. A tall, frosty Tom Collins was the beverage offered to grown-ups. The kids drank lemonade.

But even this sort of idyllic farm supper requires some cooking. Water must be boiled, at the very least. No, you don’t want the oven on all day, but plan to make some use of your stovetop and grill if you want a good summer meal.

The urge to boycott the kitchen entirely during the summer months is understandable, especially for city dwellers enduring heat waves. The irony is that high summer is when ingredients are at their best. If ever there was a moment to have a meal straight from the farm or garden, that time is now.

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Eggplant and peppers are ideally cooked over coals, but a stovetop will still provide some smoky flavor. Credit Karsten Moran for The New York Times

When I returned from the farmers’ market the other day, my bags were filled with glistening eggplants, truly ripe tomatoes, tender young green beans, just-picked okra and colorful summer squash. I was determined to make them all into simple salads and to serve them later in the day at room temperature. That’s my kind of cold supper.

Working somewhat in advance is the trick to hot-weather cooking. Grab an hour in the early morning or midafternoon to get a little vegetable prep done or make a vinaigrette. But be sure to leave herb-chopping for the last minute — freshly cut aromatic herbs taste and look brighter.

Freshly picked green beans are a true summer treat. Whatever the color — green, purple or pale yellow — choose smaller beans, which are naturally more tender. (Midsize Blue Lake beans or tender Romano beans are other options.) I pair mine with a mustardy vinaigrette, toss them with green olives, then shower them with snipped dill and chives.

A great tomato salad starts with sweet ripe tomatoes. Good news: They are here. I chose a mix of midsize heirlooms in assorted colors, from green to red to burgundy to golden. Dressed with olive oil and red wine vinegar, with a touch of garlic, this salad is draped with anchovy fillets, the perfect counterpoint to the tomatoes’ sweetness. I toss the salad with large handful of fragrant basil leaves just before serving.

I’m an okra fan, whether it is fried, pickled or simmered in gumbo. Another way to love okra is barely cooked. For this salad, the okra boils for only two minutes in salted water, which gives it a texture reminiscent of asparagus. Seasoned with a warm and earthy Moroccan spice blend, it pleases even avowed okra-phobes.

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Okra is boiled for just two minutes, giving it an asparaguslike texture. Credit Karsten Moran for The New York Times

The happy mix of eggplant, peppers and onions is found throughout the Mediterranean. Ideally the vegetables are cooked over hot coals, which adds a welcome smokiness, but I charred mine on a stovetop grill for a similar effect. Then I chopped them together in roughs chunk and added olive oil, lemon, capers and oregano — simple but glorious when made with super-fresh ingredients.

A salad of julienned raw zucchini dressed in yogurt, with a generous amount of lemon juice and zest, is extremely refreshing. My favorite herb vendor at the market had chervil, mint and a type of sorrel with tiny leaves, all of which enhanced the lemony essence. Sometimes I add a pinch of powdered sumac, too.

Lined up on the table, these five salads made an impressive buffet. But you can also use this little collection for five nights of summer dining, with a different salad each night. Since none of the vegetables were ever refrigerated, they had that straight-from-the-garden sweetness. It made this city boy think about moving upstate.

5
Aug

These Tacos Get Their Fire From the Grill

These Tacos Get Their Fire From the Grill

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Grilled steak tacos with a cherry tomato salsa. Credit Andrew Scrivani for The New York Times

It’s not the warm tortilla or the tender filling that makes a taco for me — it’s the condiments. The main protein almost doesn’t matter, be it fish, beef tongue or crisp pork carnitas. As long as there are several kinds of salsas and hot sauces, alongside the lime wedges, sliced radishes and chopped onions available at the taco stand, you’ll find me happily dabbing, squeezing and layering before taking a bite.

At home, though, your choice of taco condiments is usually more limited. How many salsas are you willing to make?

Your best move, then, is to make a well-considered salsa that works with the protein at hand, and to put out a crisp vegetable or two as a counterpart to the soft filling in the warm tortillas.

In this summery recipe, grilled skirt steaks, marinated with garlic, coriander, cumin, chile powder and lime zest, serve as the protein. The longer you let the meat sit in the seasonings, the more intense the flavors will become. Marinating overnight is best, if you can plan ahead, but just an hour or so makes a difference.

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Slices of a marinated skirt steak right off the grill, which adds the fire to the tacos. Credit Andrew Scrivani for The New York Times

Even if you don’t get around to putting it into tacos, the steak itself is flavorful enough to stand alone. Serve it with a salad, and enjoy its beefy simplicity.

That said, the salsa is worth the effort, and you can make it as the meat marinates.

To make it, first grill the onion, garlic and a jalapeño. This caramelizes their flesh, making them tender and sweet. Then, add another jalapeño — this one raw — and a squirt of lime juice for bracing, fiery notes that you can adjust to taste. The jalapeño seeds will make everything spicier; adding more or less lime juice controls the acidity.

For a bit of richness, I add avocado cubes to the salsa bowl. It’s not a common move; usually, if they are paired with tacos, avocados are mashed into guacamole or neatly sliced on the side. But their gentle flavor and buttery texture works well here. Be sure to stir gently after adding them: You want them to stay as little velvety pillows until you bite in.

Once you’ve got the meat, salsa and tortillas, you can garnish your tacos with any crisp vegetables on hand. I love radishes, but pickled carrot rounds, sliced onions or shredded cabbage are welcome. Then mix it all up, and garnish to your heart’s content.

5
Aug

Amazon to Buy Whole Foods for $13.4 Billion

Amazon to Buy Whole Foods for $13.4 Billion

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Customers at a Whole Foods Market in Midtown Manhattan. Credit John Taggart for The New York Times

Amazon agreed to buy the upscale grocery chain Whole Foods for $13.4 billion, in a deal that will instantly transform the company that pioneered online shopping into a merchant with physical outposts in hundreds of neighborhoods across the country.

The acquisition, announced Friday, is a reflection of both the sheer magnitude of the grocery business — about $800 billion in annual spending in the United States — and a desire to turn Amazon into a more frequent shopping habit by becoming a bigger player in food and beverages. After almost a decade selling groceries online, Amazon has failed to make a major dent on its own as consumers have shown a stubborn urge to buy items like fruits, vegetables and meat in person.

Buying Whole Foods also represents a major escalation in the company’s long-running battle with Walmart, the largest grocery retailer in the United States, which has been struggling to play catch-up in internet shopping. On Friday, Walmart announced a $310 million deal to acquire the internet apparel retailer Bonobos, and last year it agreed to pay $3.3 billion for Jet.com and put Jet’s chief executive, Marc Lore, in charge of Walmart’s overall e-commerce business.

“Make no mistake, Walmart under no circumstances can lose the grocery wars to Amazon,” said Brittain Ladd, a strategy and supply chain consultant who formerly worked with Amazon on its grocery business. “If Walmart loses the grocery battle to Amazon, they have no chance of ever dethroning Amazon as the largest e-commerce player in the world.”

I hope Amazon will stop selling ” Conventional Foods” which Whole Foods try and pass off as something good when in reality is nothing but…

The idea of Amazon, a company founded 23 years ago on the premise of shopping from the comfort of a computer screen, moving forcefully into the crowded field of brick-and-mortar retail, with its limitations on selection and lack of customer reviews, once seemed ludicrous. But in the past several years, the company has dabbled with stores, opening or planning more than a dozen bookstores around the country.

Amazon Is Trying to Do (and Sell) Everything

The company’s $13.4 billion deal for Whole Foods is the latest signal of Amazon’s ambitions to have a hold on nearly every facet our lives — like the computer servers that power our favorite websites and the food we eat.

In Seattle, it recently opened two grocery drive-through stores where customers can pick up online orders, along with a convenience store called Amazon Go that uses sensors and software to let shoppers sail through the exits without visiting a cashier.

The addition of Whole Foods takes Amazon’s physical presence to a new level. The grocery chain includes more than 460 stores in the United States, Canada and Britain with sales of $16 billion in the last fiscal year. Mikey Vu, a partner at the consultancy Bain & Company who is focused on retail, said, “They’re going to be within an hour or 30 minutes of as many people as possible.”

Founded in 1978 in Austin, Tex., Whole Foods is best known for its organic foods, building its brand on healthy eating and fresh, local produce and meats. It has also long been caricatured as “Whole Paycheck” for the high prices it charges for groceries. That conflicts with a core tenet of Amazon, which has made low prices part of its mission as a retailer.

Analysts speculated that Amazon could use its $99-a-year Prime membership service, which gives customers free, two-day shipping and other benefits, to offer Whole Foods customers a better price on groceries, as it does for books in its bookstores. The stores could also serve as an advertisement to get more customers to sign up for Prime; in September the financial firm Cowen & Company estimated that Prime had 49 million subscribers in the United States, representing about 44 percent of households.

Amazon has been on a multiyear offensive to open warehouses closer to customers so it can deliver orders in as little as two hours, and Whole Foods stores will further narrow Amazon’s physical proximity to its shoppers. The stores could become locations for returning online orders of all kinds. Amazon could also use them to cut delivery times for online orders.

The $13.4 billion deal, which does not include net debt, immediately raised questions about whether Amazon’s experiments with automation, like the cashier-less checkout technology it is testing in its Amazon Go store, could eventually lead to job losses at Whole Foods stores.

“Amazon’s brutal vision for retail is one where automation replaces good jobs,” Marc Perrone, president of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, said in a statement. “That is the reality today at Amazon, and it will no doubt become the reality at Whole Foods.”

Drew Herdener, a spokesman for Amazon, said it has no plans to use the Amazon Go technology to automate the jobs of cashiers at Whole Foods and no job reductions are planned as a result of the deal. Whole Foods workers are not unionized.

The move to buy Whole Foods is a further sign of the outsize ambitions of Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s chief executive and founder, who came under fire from Donald J. Trump during the presidential campaign last year, when Mr. Trump said Mr. Bezos had a “huge antitrust problem because he’s controlling so much.”

Nicole Navas Oxman, a spokeswoman for the Justice Department, declined to comment about whether its antitrust division saw any issues with the proposed acquisition. Law professors who specialize in antitrust said it was unlikely regulators would block the deal.

“One question would be, does an online seller of groceries compete with a brick-and-mortar grocery store, and I think the answer is ‘yes, at some level, but that overlap is probably not terribly great,’” said John E. Lopatka, a professor of antitrust law at Penn State University.

If the deal goes through, Amazon and Whole Foods will still only account for about 3.5 percent of grocery spending in the United States, making it the country’s fifth-largest grocery retailer, according to estimates by John Blackledge, an analyst at Cowen & Company.

Groceries are purchased five times a month on average by shoppers, compared with the four times a month Amazon Prime customers typically shop on the site and two times for people who do not have Prime memberships, Cowen estimates.

“If you open up groceries, it could increase the frequency,” Mr. Blackledge said.

For Whole Foods, the deal represents a chance to fend off pressure from activist investors frustrated by a sluggish stock price as it has faced fierce competition from Costco, Safeway and Walmart, which have begun offering organic produce and kitchen staples, forcing Whole Foods to slash prices. Money managers, unhappy with the pace of the turnaround effort, have pushed for more, taking aim at the board, its grocery offerings and its pricey real estate holdings.

In response, Whole Foods has revamped its board and replaced its chief financial officer. Gabrielle Sulzberger, a private equity executive, was named the company’s chairwoman. Ms. Sulzberger is married to Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr., the chairman and publisher of The New York Times.

Investors are betting there may be other buyers interested in Whole Foods, and by late Friday the company’s shares rose above Amazon’s $42 a share offer, nearly 30 percent higher for the day. Amazon closed at $987.71 a share, up 2.4 percent.

Even with the bigger physical presence Amazon will gain through Whole Foods, it will have far less reach than Walmart and its Sam’s Club warehouse chain, which together account for about 18 percent of the grocery market. Walmart has almost 10 times the number of stores as Whole Foods does.

“We feel great about our position, with more than 4,500 stores around the country and fast growing e-commerce and online grocery businesses,” Greg Hitt, a spokesman for Walmart, said in a statement.

Correction: June 16, 2017
An earlier version of this article misstated the annual sales in the United States in the grocery industry. The sales are $700 billion to $800 billion, not $700 million to $800 million.

5
Aug

Can You Develop Food Allergies at Any Age?

Can You Develop Food Allergies at Any Age?

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Credit Tony Cenicola/The New York Times

Q. Can adults develop food allergies, such as allergies to peanuts?

A. Yes. Preliminary data from a large, new national study that is currently under review suggests that nearly 52 percent of American adults with a reported food allergy developed one or more food allergies after age 18.

An estimated 5 percent of adults in the United States have a food allergy, compared with about 8 percent of children. And while some children outgrow allergies — usually those to milk, eggs and wheat — many retain their allergies through adulthood.

Dr. Ruchi Gupta, a food allergy researcher at the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, who led the national study, noted that at allergy meetings around the world, “you’d hear more and more about adult-onset food allergy. But this was all anecdotal. That’s the reason we did the study, to get the numbers behind how frequently.”

Last year, Dr. Gupta and colleagues from Northwestern and the NORC Survey Research Lab at the University of Chicago surveyed 40,447 adults across the United States, recruited from a nationally representative sample. They found that shellfish was the most common food allergy among adults, affecting 3.9 percent of the population, followed by peanut allergies, at 2.4 percent, and tree nut allergies, at 1.9 percent.

Peanut allergies typically develop during childhood, and children less commonly outgrow them than they do other food allergies. Peanut allergy appears to be equally prevalent among American adults and children.

It has been well established that kids develop allergies to the “top eight” foods: milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish. Most of the reactions in adults occur to the top eight foods as well, according to Dr. Sharon Chinthrajah, an assistant professor at the Stanford University School of Medicine and medical director of the Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, which was involved in shaping the survey. That said, shellfish allergy is more common among adults than among children, as it tends to appear later in life.

Several patterns have been observed that are unique to adults who develop new food allergies. One is called oral allergy syndrome, which occurs in a small percentage of adults who have seasonal allergies. It “involves your body getting tricked,” said Dr. Chinthrajah. She explained that some adults might have allergies to tree pollen, for example, and some of the tree proteins are similar to those in fruits and vegetables, “so when your body eats the raw form of those foods, it thinks you’re eating tree pollen.” Birch tree pollen, for instance, bears similarities to proteins found in fruits like peaches, apples and cherries. The main symptom is typically an itchy mouth or throat. Interestingly, if the fruit is first processed or cooked in any way, it denatures the protein and does not produce the same reaction.

Many adults who develop a new food allergy wonder what caused it — the “turn-on switch” as Dr. Gupta calls it. Anecdotal reports suggest that pregnancy, for example, can trigger new allergies, leading some to hypothesize that a hormonal connection may be at play. Other patients report they noticed a new allergy after getting a viral infection. Still, it is not yet clear what causes a new reaction to a food after someone has eaten it for decades without incident.

Importantly, an allergic reaction is not the same as a food intolerance. An allergic reaction is characterized by marked symptoms, such as itching, hives, swelling, trouble breathing or vomiting, within two hours of consuming the food in question. Symptoms that appear the next day may be characteristic of a food intolerance, which Dr. Chinthrajah said researchers do not yet understand as well as they understand food allergies.

More severe allergic reactions may require epinephrine or a visit to the emergency department. But just because you have a reaction once doesn’t mean you must completely remove a food from your diet, said Dr. Gupta. Instead, if you have concerns, seek an allergist to get tested.